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the WILLIAM EDWARDS DEMING

Resena Biografica

W. Edwards Deming was born October 14, 1900 in Sioux City, Iowa. Shortly after, his family moved to Powell, Wyoming. His father, a lawyer, fighter, lost a lawsuit in Powell, Wyoming, which he did to move the family to the city when Deming was 7 years old. They lived in a humble cottage where the worry would be his next meal was part of his daily regimen. With only 8 years left to work at a local hotel. With his savings in hand, Deming was Powell at the age of 17 to Laraman, to the University of Wyoming where he obtained a bachelor’s degree in physics at the University in 1921. In the year 1929 he earned the degree of doctor in physics mathematics at Yale.

at The beginning of his career was devoted to work on the control statistical quality, but the entry of E. U. in the Second World War and the excessive demand of products on the part of the allies provoked that american companies would shift to mass production to meet that demand in a market that is very standardized and very closed, leaving aside the ideas of Shewart, Deming and other precursors.

During and after the second world war working for the Office of censuses of the united States. In 1950, he traveled to Japan to collaborate in the conduction of a census of the population, and I teach lectures on control statistical quality, targeted to high level business executives. Deming told the japanese that they could become leaders in quality worldwide if you followed their advice. The japanese authorities saw in the work of this scholar, the starter motor of the catastrophic situation that had left the country after its military defeat. Japan was top of and development the approaches of Deming, and became the cornerstone of his national development strategy. In the years fifty, travelled again to Japan at the behest of the Association of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE). As to refuse to charge for their dissertations (Japan at that time was economically depleted), the JUSE use those funds to establish the Deming Prize, which today is the award honors the quality, but more important, from Japan. In the official Report of the NBC in 1980 called If Japan Can, Why Can?t We (If Japan can, ?why don’t we?), he was proclaimed the “founder of the third wave of the Industrial Revolution”.

Today is regarded in general as the maximo expert in quality management, and is still cited as the precursor of the third industrial revolution (the first took place at the beginning of the NINETEENTH century with the simple automation; the second, at the end of the same century with the concepts of assembly/fitting, and the third is happening with the revolution of information/informatics and computing).

Basic Principles

Quality does not mean luxury. Quality is a degree of uniformity and reliability that is predictable, low cost and adapted to the market. In other words, quality is what the consumer needs and craves. In view of the needs and desires of the consumer are always changing, the way we define quality with reference to the consumer consists in redefining constantly the requirements.

The productivity increase as variability decreases. The quality control is necessary, since all things vary. The control statistical does not mean the absence of products or services are defective, but rather allows one to predict the limits of the variations. There are two types of variation: random and attributable. It is useless to try to eradicate the defects caused by the random. But it can be very difficult to distinguish between the two, or to determine the attributable causes. It is not enough to respond to specifications; it is necessary to reduce variation.

Deming criticizes severely the style of administration in the united States and is an advocate of the participation of the worker in the process of decision making. Says that the address is responsible for 94 percent of quality problems, and points out that it is a task of the same help the staff to work with more enthusiasm and not with more effort. Deming stresses that one of the first measures of the administration is to remove barriers that prevent workers to develop a task efficiently. The programs of motivation that offer only babblings have no place here; the workers distinguish very well between palabreria and commitment.

The inspection of the products that enter or that leave it is too late, ineffective and costly. Inspection neither improves nor guarantees quality. In addition, it usually supports a certain amount of defects. The best recognition you can offer to a seller of quality is to reward them with more operations. Deming advocates a single source of supply. You think that having multiple providers as a measure of protection is a practice expensive. The advantages of the provider only include a greater commitment of the same. In addition, there are small differences between the products of two suppliers, and simplifying accounting and paperwork. Against the argument that a single supplier can mean paying a higher price, Deming argues that the policy of attempting a reduction of the price of the purchased goods, without to consider the quality and the service, you can move the industry to the good vendors and good service.

below, show a summary of the famous 14 points of Deming, along with the seven deadly diseases, and a number of obstacles. These elements are discussed in detail in the work of Deming, Out of the Crisis (to Exit the crisis).

The 14 Points of Deming’s

    Create a constancy of purpose for improvement of product and service. The vision must guide the corporate culture and provide a target to the organization. This vision gives the organization a long-term perspective. Assess the commitment of the direction, and determined as this acting organization in relationship with other companies. the Adopt the new philosophy. The sector manager of the West must awaken to the challenge, and take on a new role in the leadership. The revolution of the quality, it is comparable in economic importance to the industrial Revolution. Is concurrent with the globalization of the economy. the Stop relying on inspection to achieve quality. I Introduce modern tools of quality, such as controlling statistical processes, the operations evolutionary, the design of experiences and the unfolding of the function quality. The inspection only serves to assess a problem, and does not allow any correction. It is often said that you cannot “inspect quality”. the Minimize the total cost of operating with a single provider; complete with the practice of assigning operations only on the basis of price. do Not make trade agreements to dumb and blind with the lowest bidder. Instead, to reduce to a minimum the total cost. Opt for a single supplier for each item, establishing a relationship in the long term on the basis of loyalty and trust. The certification programs of the seller and the analysis of the total costs (full cycle) play an important role in this regard. the Improve constantly and forever every process. I did not simply resolve the problems. The continuous improvement of quality and productivity reduces costs steadily. Prevent defects and improve the process. To achieve improvement it is essential to know the response of consumers and sellers or suppliers. the Institute training on the function. The training applies to all levels of the organization, from the lowest to the highest. Do not dismiss the possibility that the best instructors can be their own employees. the Adopt and institute leadership. leadership arises from knowledge, expertise and interpersonal skills, not of the authority. All can and should be leaders. The qualities of leadership are no longer considered innate and enigmaticas; they can be acquired. Leaders are able to remove the barriers that prevent staff and the machines to reach their level optimum performance. the Eliminate the fear. The fear is born out of the leadership unsure which is supported on the labour standards, the authority, in punishment and in a business culture that promotes internal competition is out of place in an efficient company. It can originate in the emotional abuse and physical on the part of colleagues and superiors. Fear stifles creativity, which is the engine of quality improvement. This fear can be overcome by identifying and filling gaps in the communication, culture and training. Factors inherent to the system can also generate fear, and the evaluations of performance. the bonus programs and fees work. the tear down the barriers between the areas of the staff. Everyone must work together as a team, towards a goal of consistency. Team work is an imperative in the management modern. May be required new organisational structures. Transform the organization chart is an experience that is frightening, however, is necessary to achieve the proper balance and perspective. the Eliminate slogans, exhortations and targets for the template. programs or bells that impose a task but leave the worker without the power to achieve an objective represents a management by fear. the Delete the quotas numerical for workers and the goals of word for the address. Leave aside the management-by-objectives or, more precisely, the management by numbers. Replace the leadership. Quotas numerical do not take into account the factors statistical that affect all workers. Not all workers can be above the average; nor all below the same. The practice in traditional industrial engineering is the “management by numbers” and this alludes precisely Deming. The measurements of the work gave a result up to a certain stage in the industrial development, but society and business have evolved beyond that. Today, the contributions of labor may impose a ceiling to the quality and the production, rather than a goal. The variation natural is ignored on these systems, and the figures will be prominent over all other interests of the company. the Remove the barriers that prevent staff experience pride in the task. Delete the system of rating annual. Delete everything which deprive the worker of pride in their work. The responsibility of supervisors must pass from the volume and the end result to the quality. Remove the barriers that prevent people to address and engineer the possibility of being proud of your task. This means delete the marks or annual merit and management by objectives. the Institute a vigorous program of training and autosuperacion for all staff. The training produces an immediate change of conduct. The results of the training may not manifest itself immediately, but often have important effects in the long term. The autosuperacion is a task of gradual education and development of one’s self. This can mean the implementation of courses of administration time, reducing stress, allow staff to use work time to practice a physical activity in the case of an assignment to sedentary or to allow employees to work more active to participate in intellectual tasks or courses. the Right to work to all the staff of the company to achieve the transformation. It takes a commitment from high management levels in order to achieve the effort necessary for the transformation. The transformation is everyone’s job.

THE SEVEN DEADLY DISEASES

    Lack of constancy of purpose. The lack of vision results in a lack of objectives and a lack of discipline that can lead to the deterioration of the work environment and the organization. the Emphasis on short-term profits; a thought of short-range. This is the same thing that has been said above, but it is seen so often in american corporations that deserve a special mention. That the quarterly report is the unique purpose of the company is a suicide business. Unfortunately, there are many institutional mechanisms that act against this aspect of the transformation. the annual Assessments of performance. The effects of the evaluations of performance are devastating. The management by objectives inconsistent is the same thing. A management by fear to manage the staff it may be better that these tools are extremely demotivadoras. the Mobility of the executive positions; change of employment. In the western society assigns little importance to the fact of staying in the job for years and perform to the maximum. the Use tangible figures only for executives. If the information was relevant to their work, they need to be informed. the The excessive costs for health care. The books on the stress abound. The reason is the great as that experienced in the job environment of today’s enterprise; a corollary of this is the rise of the independent workers. Said in terms more simple, the people who enjoy your work is more healthy. The health plans that include preventive measures must be selected among those that simply offer an answer to the problems. the The excessive costs liability. This is encouraged by the lawyers who work on a fee basis possible, in a society which is listed very high for a profession that provides little or no added value.

THE CHALLENGES OF DEMING’s

1. Neglecting the planning and the transformation of the long-term.

2. The idea that problems are solved with automation, devices, and other “items”.

3. Adopt a variety of recipes to implement the improvement of the quality without following the basic principles prove disastrous.

4. The attitude “our problems are different” leads to ignoring the basic principles.

5. The desactualizacion in education, both in colleges and in graduate schools, have to be overcome.

6. Based on the quality control departments to “resolve all our problems of quality”. Quality must become part of the task of all.

7. Hold other staff accountable for the problems. There must be a system improvement as well as product. A product free from defects means nothing if the product has been manufactured to be inappropriate.

8. Quality by inspection. Quality cannot be “inspected”. Meeting specifications does not mean to achieve quality; that is not all.

9. The failures may be the result of the training mass with little orientation to the implementation. Other failures occur when the idea to be implemented will require years of transformation cultural. Deming refers to the example of the circles of quality control that have been poorly implemented in the united States, because of the lack of understanding and action on the part of the address.

10. The computers without staff. Computers can eliminate the tedious calculations, but not the need for interpretation. The systems have not evolved to the point of a factory of robots, and it is quite likely that this will not happen for a long time.

11. The tests inadequate. The prototypes are much less costly than a failure mass in the production. Manufacture assisted by computer allows you to produce prototypes “simple” that they are easy to modify and they do a good job of imitating the reality. A model “complex” can be built after experimenting with different prototypes simple.

12. “Anyone who comes to aide us must understand all about our company”, this is an arrogant attitude that leads to failure. The answers can be found within the organization, from outside consultants and from other sources.

the 40 thoughts on » WILLIAM EDWARDS DEMING »

KAREN on August 29, 2009 at 3:56 pm said:

Description of the article: managing the demand

Source: WILLIAM EDWARDS DEMING | THE QUALITY and PHILOSOPHY OF MANAGEMENT